Sipanji is a Persian word meaning eight ("seh" is three and
"panj" is five). Guru Gobind Singhji had used this word in
Verse No 107 of Zafarnama (the Letter of Victory) that he wrote to Aurangzeb
in 1705. In this verse, he has referred to the world as " Sipanji
Sarai" meaning an inn where people come to stay for just eight
days and at the end of this period, yield their places to others who
follow them. This period of Sipanji ie; eight days (from 20 December
1704 to 27 December 1704) earlier was a decisive period in the history
of our nation. This was the period in which extreme hardships were suffered,
extreme sacrifices made and extreme heroes gifted to the nation. Historical
records are not available to show what actually happened, hour by hour,
during these eight days. However an effort has been made, in the following
pages, to reconstruct the events of Sipanji.
(Having failed to defeat the Khalsa force in battle, the combined forces
of Aurangzeb and the Hill Chieftains had laid siege to Anandpur in the
summer of 1704. The Mughals and the Hill Chiefs had sworn on Koran and
Cow that if Guruji leaves Anandpur, he will not be harmed. Their dishonesty
was tested by Guruji, when these forces attacked a cart full of useless
articles that was sent out of the fort. But with the running out of
the provisions, the morale of the Sikhs began to wilt. Their suffering
had almost reached an end of human endurance; some even renounced and
deserted the Guruji. An autographed letter was also received from Aurangzeb
who promised safe passage to the Guruji and his Sikhs.; this hardened
the resolve of the Sikhs to leave Anandpur. Finally under pressure from
the Sikhs and the mother, Guruji had decided to leave Anandpur)
First Day (20th December 1704)
There is hectic activity going on inside the Anandpur fort. All-important
manuscripts, articles of personal luggage, war materials etc have been
packed. Things that cannot be carried have been torched. All wait for
the nightfall. At about mid night, Guruji with his family members and
500 strong Khalsa force leaves Anandpur fort. The night is dark and
bitterly cold. The rain has made the tracks muddy which makes it difficult
for the convoy to move fast. After going by Kiratpur and Nimohgarh,
Guruji heads for Ropar. In the meantime, the enemy forces have come
to know that Guruji has left Anandpur fort. Throwing their oaths to
the wind, they give a chase; the Khalsa force engages them in battle
at different locations on the way; this goes on throughout. Guruji with
family members and a small force has reached the banks of Sirsa, which
is in spate on account of rains.
Second Day (21st December 1704)
It is early morning. The river has subsided and can be negotiated.
The party begins to wade through the water; forty Sikhs and Guruji's
family members are able to go across. The rest have perished in combat.
In the process of crossing of Sirsa, some of the rare manuscripts are
lost. After crossing Sirsa, Guruji with 40 Sikhs, two eldest Sahibzadas,
Mata Sundri and Mata Sahib Kaur move towards Ropar. On the way, someone
has brought news to Guruji that not only the axis forces from Anandpur
side are in hot pursuit, there is a large imperial army ahead of his
route to Ropar. Guruji changes his route and heads for Chamkaur where
he reaches by evening. He stations himself on a mud house or haveili
and takes a defensive position to give battle to the enemy. By nightfall,
the imperial forces reach Chamkaur and surround the village.
Mata Sundri and Mata Sahib Kaur, in the company of a trusted Sikh proceed
towards Ropar and spend the night at his house.
Earlier in the morning, in the confusion of crossing Sirsa, Mata Gujriji
with Sahibzada Zorawar Singh, Sahibzada Fateh Singh and a faithful attendant
are separated from the main party. In the biting cold of early dawn,
they walk through the thick jungle. Their bodies are benumbed with cold.
Some way across, they are met by the family cook, Gangu Brahmin, who
offers to give them shelter in his house; the offer is gratefully accepted.
On reaching there, they are put up in the hinder most portion of the
house. They sleep on a straw mat spread on the floor.
Third Day (22nd December 1704)
Early in the morning, a section of the Mughal force advances towards
the mud house that has been turned into a fortress. This attacking force
is met with a volley of bullets and arrows; many fall to the ground.
Section after section of their force attacks but every time are repulsed.
When the enemy tries to force the gate open, the Sikhs come out in the
open to give them battle. This goes on throughout the day. The advance
of the imperial force is checked every time they try to scale the wall.
The enemy suffers heavy casualties; many eat the dust after getting
hit by the gold tipped arrows of Guruji. Nahar, one of the Generals
of the Mughal forces has tasted a gold tipped arrow and left for the
other world. Many of the enemy troops, out of fear, are seen hiding
behind a wall. Sahibzada Ajit Singh has realised that the odds have
turned against the defenders. With the blessings of the Master, he is
seen piercing into the enemy ranks with a lance in his hand. And when
the odds get still stiffer, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh also leaps into the
enemy ranks; shooting and killing them. At the end of the day, three
of the Panj Piaras, both the Sahibzadas, and most of the defenders have
attained martyrdom. Only five Sikhs are left inside the fortress with
Guruji. The Mughal force, being unsuccessful till now, retires to take
stock of the situation and plan new strategy for the next day. Inside
the fortress, the five Sikhs are begging the Master to leave for his
safety; he is adamant in staying on with his Sikhs till the end. Ultimately
the Sikhs, after due consultation with each other, have passed a Gurmata,
asking him to leave the fortress. He has no other option but to accept
their edict. Accordingly, accompanied by three Sikhs, he leaves the
fortress in the dead of night leaving two of them inside and heads towards
village Kheri. The sky is clear. It is a moonlit night that makes it
easier for distant things to be seen. (Guruji has described in Verse
42 of Zafarnama that during that night the moon was shining with all
its glory). However Guruji gets separated from the three Sikhs in their
Mata Sundri and Mata Sahib Kaur leave Ropar for Delhi in the company
of the trusted Sikh at whose house they had spent the previous night.
(They reach there safely after a few days trip).
Mata Gujri and the two young Sahibzadas continue to stay at the house
of Gangu Brahmin.
Fourth Day (23rd December 1704)
Guruji reaches Kheri village before daybreak. It is extremely cold.
He has neither slept nor eaten anything for days. Thirst, hunger, and
fatigue have totally exhausted him. He takes tender leaves and milk
of the Akk plant; since nothing else is available here. His courage
is strong like steel but limbs are weak. He is in the cluster of trees.
The night falls and the Master is lying under the canopy of heaven;
he is singing in praise of the Almighty. It is here that he composes
the famous hymn " The disciples message to the dear Friend".
After a few hours rest,he starts again in the direction of Malwa. It
is difficult to keep moving on. So he lies down and rests in a garden
in Machhiwara which belongs to a Masand named Gulaba.
Mata Gujri and the two young Sahibzadas continue to be at the house
of Gangu Brahmin.
Fifth Day (24th December 1704)
By a strange coincidence, the three Sikhs who had separated from the
Master when they came out of Chamkaur fortress have again met him at
the garden in Machhiwara. They have informed Guruji that the Mughal
forces are still in hot pursuit. But the Master cannot walk because
of blisters in his feet; he is carried to the well nearby where he takes
bath after many days. Gulaba has also come to know about Guruji's presence
in his garden. He is much pleased and takes him to his house for nourishment
Gangu Brahmin, in order to get into the good books of the local Mughal
official, treacherously informs him about presence of Mata Gujri and
the two Sahibzadas at his house. They are arrested immediately and taken
to Sirhind where they are confined in a fort.
Sixth Day (25th December 1704)
Guruji's presence at Gulaba's house has been noticed by his neighbours.
Gulaba is scared lest the Mughal forces come to know about it. He has
refused shelter to Guruji and asks him to leave. There is no resentment
or sorrow at Gulaba's lack of heart. Before leaving Guruji wants to
meet Gurdevi, the lady, who has been yearning to meet the Master for
whom she has been weaving cloth for some time. The Master brings joy
to Gurdevi by visiting her and accepting the cloth. At the suggestion
of the two Muslim followers, who have also joined him, the cloth is
dyed in blue, made into robes and all six (including Guruji) dress up
as Muslim faqirs. Four of them carry him in a litter with one Sikh waving
Chauri over him. For all, the Master is now the Uch Da Pir or Spiritual
Chief of Saints of Uch. (They travel in safety towards Hehar in Ludhiana
District, Raikot, Jatpura, and finally to Dina where he stayed for quite
some time and wrote Zafarnama).
The young Sahibzadas have been summoned before Wazir Khan, the Governor
of Sirhind. Before leaving the fort of the confinement, their grand
mother exhorts them to be true to the ideals of their grandfather and
father. On reaching the court of the Governor, the young souls refuse
to bow before him when asked to do so. Both brothers are cajoled into
taking up Islam, which is refused, with a firm no. They are offered
best of life if they change their religion.Their reply that they will
prefer to die rather than live as renegades, infuriates the Governor
who thunders that he will give them one more day to think ; if they
do'nt change their views they will be tortured. The Sahibzadas are taken
back to the fort.
Seventh Day (26th December 1704)
The Sahibzadas are again brought to the court of Wazir Khan. He again
suggests to them to take up Islam which is spurned ever more vigorously.
The Governor is at the end of his wits and cannot swallow the adamant
attitude of the young children. He gives them last chance to think over
his proposal otherwise they should be ready to face dire consequences.
They are again taken to the fort. Mata Gujriji is aware of what is in
store for the young princes. She reinforces their resolve on remaining
firm in their conviction.
Eighth Day (27th December 1704)
The two brothers are again taken to the Governor's court, where the
same offer is made and is again rejected. The Governor is convinced
by now that the young Sahibzadas will not yield on their religion .He
announces his verdict: they are to be bricked alive and then beheaded.
Some one in the gathering objects to this punishment for the young boys.
The Quazi intervenes to say that the holy law has given them choice
between Islam and death; it is they who have chosen death. The brothers
have been made to stand near each other. A mason starts building a wall
around them. An executioner with drawn sword is also standing nearby.
So are the Quazi with a copy of Kuran in his hand and an official of
the Governor's court to ensure that the orders are carried out properly.
The wall has come up to the shoulder height; the Governor again visits
the young princes and again offers them freedom if they take up Islam;
he gets the same reply. There upon, on a nod from the Governor, prince
Zorawar Singh's head is severed from his body. At this stage prince
Fateh Singh is again asked to accept Islam if he wants to avoid the
fate of elder brother. His reply: be quick so that I can meet my elder
brother. He is also beheaded. When Mata Gujri hears of the violent end
of her grand children, she closes her eyes and soon she is together
with the slain princes.
How do we remember the Heroes?
The above is a short history of Sipanji - the most tragic period of
our nation. A period, which gave us our greatest heroes. The tyrants
furnished the situation to them; their courage provided the theme for
their great deeds. Where can we find a handful of newly trained combatants
taking on the might of an empire (Guruji has described their numbers
as forty verses ten lakh in Verse No 19 of Zafarnama). Sahibzadas Ajit
Singh and Jujhar Singh, knowing fully well what awaits them in the battlefield
outside the Chamkaur fortress, willingly let a charge against the enemy
forces and sacrificed their lives. Countless others who had faith in
the Master gave their lives for a cause in which they had unflinching
faith. The young princes could not be coerced into taking up Islam in
spite of threat of death; their indomitable spirit could not be broken.
A grand mother sends her grandsons to embrace death rather than let
them change their faith. And finally the hero of heroes, Guru Gobind
Singh, who gave everything he had, his father, his four sons, his mother,
his dearest Khalsa for bringing an end to tyranny.
How do we observe this period of Sipanji and remember our heroes. To
begin with, we may narrate their deeds to our children. Over a period
of time, this will become part of our folklore. The heroes are the beacons
who light up our path in the journey of our lives. The greatest inspiration
to a young mind is the hero he decides to emulate. We may also take
the children to the sites where these heroic deeds were performed especially
during Sipanji. The more adventurous may actually walk in their footsteps
from Anandpur Sahib to Chamkaur Sahib on 20/21 December every year.
International shooting / archery competitions (the main weapons used
by the heroes) may be organised each year. People may like to have Sehaj
Path at their homes during this period of eight days. Finally, since
this was a period of extreme pain for the creator of the Khalsa, people
may like to dispense with indulgence in merry making during Sipanji.
Even though 22 December is also a joyous occasion for the nation (Guru
Gobind Singhji was born on this day in 1666), the day can still be celebrated
The above are only some of the suggestions as to how we can observe
Sipanji and remember our heroes. Ultimately every individual, every
family decides as to what we should do, if at all any thing has to be
done, during this period. The purpose of this write up is to bring home
to every one that there was a short period in our history when extreme
sacrifices were made by its heroes in the formative years of the nation.