BRIEF ON PERSIAN LANGUAGE

Guruji has used very simple Persian while writing the Zafarnama. It is not possible for any one to give exact pronunciation of the Persian words in English or in Gurmukhi scripts but I have tried to be as close (especially in Gurmukhi script) as possible to the original Persian. The reader will notice that many words have been used by Guruji, which differ only marginally from each other. This is because the Persian words, especially verbs, can be changed to their present, past, singular, and plural forms by slight modification to their basic form. Just to give a few examples: (a)"aamdan" or "E`mdn" and (b) "khordan" or "<Ordn" are the basic verbs meaning, "to come" and " to eat/to drink" respectively (these words have been used quite frequently in Zafarnama). Their present and past stems are "aa-E` " and "aamad-E`md" respectively for (a) and "khor-<Or" and "khord-<Ord" respectively for (b). These undergo changes as per the following ( use of personal pronouns can be dispensed with when these forms are used):

For "aamdan - a;mdn" to come

(present tense from present stem "aa-E`") (past tense from past stem"aamad-E`md")
aayam or a;ym I come aamdam or a;mdm I came
aa-ee or a;XI You come (singular) aamdi or a;mdI You came
aayad or a;yd He comes aamad or a;md He came
aayeem or a;yIm We come aamdeem or a;mdIm We came
aayeed or a;yId You come (plural) aamdeed or a;;mdId You came
aayand or a;yMd They come aamdand or a;mdMd They came
   
For "khordan - <Ordn " (to eat/drink)
   
(Present tense from present stem "khor-<Or") (Past tense from past stem"khord-<Ord")
khoram or <Orm I eat/drink  khordam or <Ord I ate/drank
khori or <OrI You eat/drink (singular) khordi or <OrdI You ate/drank
khoradd or <Ord He eats/drinks khord or <Ord He ate/drank
khoreem or <OrIm We eat/drink khordeem or <OrdIm We ate/drank
khoreed or <OrId You eat/drink (plural) khordeed or <OrdId You ate/drank
khorand or <OrMd They eat/drink khordand or <OrdMd They ate/drank
   

Other changes in the verbs are brought about by adding suffix to these roots. For example when "ni-nI" is added to the root ( present or past ), it conveys the meaning of "no, not"; "niaayam-nIa;ym" means "I ( will ) not come" and "nikhordam-nI<Ordm" means " I did not eat". If "b-b" is prefixed to the present stem only, it changes the verb to imperative form. For example "bkhor-b<Or" is an order "eat"; and "biaa-bIa;" is an instruction to a person "come here". For negative commands "m-m" or "n-n" is prefixed to the present root. "mkun/nkun-makun/nakun" conveys "do'nt do". There are many other variations of these verbs and other words. To understand all these one has to learnPersian language. However, for ease of understanding, Individual meanings of the Persian words have been explained immediately after each verse in English.

 

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